However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive. In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ".
Download PDF Abstract Data on research participants and populations frequently include race, ethnicity, and gender as categorical variables, with the assumption that these variables exert their effects through innate or genetically determined biologic mechanisms.
There is a growing body of research that suggests, however, that these variables have strong social dimensions that influence health. During recent decades, our understanding of the biological and psychosocial bases of diseases affecting individual children has markedly increased. Although biological research is necessary and valid, studies that do not address the importance of social determinants as fundamental causes or contributors to disease and unfulfilled potential limit the scope and impact of research conclusions.
There is a growing body of research that suggests, however, that these variables have strong—and in many areas predominantly—sociological and psychological dimensions.
Because data are collected and research questions are formulated in ways that generally do not include the social as well as biological dimensions of these variables, 4,5 it is often difficult to disentangle the biological from the social dimensions.
The purpose of this subject review is to highlight the interrelationships among factors such as race, ethnicity, and gender, viewed as social constructs, along with socioeconomic status, and to stimulate appropriate definition and analysis of these variables within any study that proposes mechanisms of disease associated with them.
Although race historically has been viewed as a biological construct, it is now known to be more accurately characterized as a social category that has changed over time and varies across societies and cultures. GENDER Sex and gender are often used interchangeably, but the former is a biologic characteristic, defined by genetic and anatomic features, whereas the latter is a social characteristic, determined by culturally defined roles and behaviors.
Ironically, the genetic, physiologic, and behavioral differences between men and women have historically been deemphasized, if not ignored, in research that has extrapolated conclusions based on male populations to women.
In recent years, recognition of the importance of considering differences between men and women as a salient independent variable in research led the National Institutes of Health to include women as participants for special consideration in clinical research grant applications, but the focus is primarily on the biological variable, that is, sex, rather than the social variable, gender.
However, given the health correlates of the differences in the social roles and behaviors of men and women, any differences found are not inevitable expressions of the biological factor. For example, the increased risk of anorexia and bulimia in girls likely reflects perceived social pressures to adhere to culturally prescribed norms for body shape and size.
For example, the social and psychological pressures experienced by an African-American woman might be very different from those experienced by a white woman, with these pressures having differential impact on the long-term trajectory of disease.
One aspect includes resources, such as education, income, and wealth and the other includes status or rank, a function of relative positions in a hierarchy, such as social class. Little is known about the way that the relationships among these social factors influence the health of children or their effects on the trajectory of the development of adult disease.
Two domains of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health are particularly active areas of research, possibly shedding light on the complexity of the mechanisms whereby this multidimensional variable influences health.
The first domain deals with the relationship between the extent of discrepancies in socioeconomic status and health. Numerous studies have documented the relationship between socioeconomic status and health.
In Finland, for example, the childhood socioeconomic status of adult men correlated more closely with ischemic heart disease during middle age than did their adult socioeconomic status.
The Academy recommends that child health studies include these critical variables to improve their definitions and enhance our understanding of the effects that relationships confounding and interactive among these variables may have on research findings.
It is no longer sufficient to use these categories as explanatory. If data relevant to the underlying social mechanisms have not been collected and are otherwise unavailable, researchers should discuss this as a limitation of the possible conclusions of the presented research.
Similar errors may result from the failure to consider the social dimensions of gender. The Academy recommends that pediatric investigators, in collaboration with social scientists, should develop and apply research methodologies in pediatric research that will result in careful definitions of, analysis of interactions among, and, ultimately, documentation of the effects of these variables on child health.
Only then can effective preventive intervention strategies be developed and implemented during childhood to improve the health of our children and the adults into which they will grow. Council on Pediatric Research, — Paul L.Gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, and class identities. by Deborrah E.S.
Frable Psychological research on identity has been fragmented by dealing separately with gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality and class, so that certain minority groups are systematically excluded from Annual Review of Psychology Annual v48 .
Gender identity haunts every aspect of our lives, dictating the outcomes of our conversations, our workplaces, our relationships – even our bath products. Before most infants are named, they are assigned a sex based on the appearance of their external genitalia by a third party.
These decisions are dolled out in a typically binary fashion, with no expectations for ambiguity. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
There has been a lot of talk about race and Buddhism here over the past several months, and some of our white readers seem to be wondering why. We have detected that you are using a touch device. Click here to take our touch studies.
Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender. Gender identity can correlate with assigned sex at birth, or can differ from it. All societies have a set of gender categories that can serve as the basis of the formation of a person's social identity in relation to other members of society.
In most societies, there is a basic division between gender attributes assigned to males and.