In place of the long preliminary chapter in the English edition, they have inserted a chapter from Mr. Arnold's "From Chaucer to Wordsworth. Introductory Remarks —Section I. Anselmr - Abelard - St.
HITHERTO we have principally consid- ered instruments of wood, bone, gourds, pebbles, shells, terra cotta, and the mis- cellaneous matters that are strung for necklaces and wristlets, sea-shells, nut- shells, hoofs and teeth of animals.
As a relief to the tedium of these savage crudities we sketched the really interest- ing wood harmonicon, but must now turn again to the rude and noisy, giving our attention to the jingling and clashing in- struments of metal, cymbals, castanets, gongs, bells, after which the topic of drums will conclude this branch of our subject.
Our cymbals came from China, and the Centennial exhibit of such instruments affords nothing specially new or interest- FLg. It is the superiority of the Chinese alloy which has given the Orient this pre- lominance, for the idea was by no means a new one in Europe when Chinese wares commenced to be known in the Mediter- ranean countries.
They were particularly devoted by the Greeks to the worship of Cybele, Bacehus, and ,Jnno. It may be reasona- bly assumed that they had their origin in the heroic lances such as those of the Persians in the time of Cyrus and Camby- ses, when the movements were performed to the music of the flute, the actors dash- ing their crescent-shaped shields togeth- er, falling on one knee and rising.
The Corybantian dance of Crete and Phry- gia, and the Pyrrhic lance, were per- formed to the jarring music of clashing weapons. Cymbals, triangles, trumpets, and drums are the instrumental accompaniment in the Buddhist temples of Ladak. Trumpets are Chinese Exhibit.
The loud-sounding and the high-sound- ing cymbals of Psalm cv. The latter were shown at the Cen- tennial, but there was no great display.
They do not differ substantially from one copyright,by II. When made of metal they may be con- sidered miniature cymbals, both valves being carried in one hand.
The suspended metallic bar beaten by an iron bdton is another inflection of the same idea; the quality of its tone de- pends on its material, its pitch upon its size and proportions. When bent to a three-sided shape it is called a triangle, from its figure; and as the ends are not united and it is suspended from one of the whole angles, its respective portions on each side of the string differ in length and consequently in tone.
In Oriental countries, where din is the object, the hammering on the triangles is kept up as industriously as the pounding on the drums and the blowing on the clarinets.
For instance, loud noise, which seems to enter into all the ideas of grandeur among a barbarous people, was never omitted in the train of the Singhalese monarch.
His progress was always at- tended by a number of performers on various instruments, such as tam- ferns drums of various kinds and sizes, shrill and squalling clarinets, pipes, fiageolets, bagpipes, and pieces of brass and iron jingled by way of triangles.
These were all sounded and clashed at once, with- out time or harmony, and accompanied by the cracking of long whip-lashes. The Siamese, more tasteful, use triangles in sets; this carries us back again to the pien-king, already considered. Another jingler is an instrument more common formerly than now, but which was never wide - spread, geographically speaking.
The ancient sistrum of Egypt, so common in museums, was unfortunate- ly not in the Egyptian exhibit at the Centennial. It had a loop-shaped head with a number of loose wires, which were shaken to make a jingling noise.
It was exported from Egypt to Greece, and used especially in the ceremonies of the worship of Cybele. Under the name of sanasil it is still used by the Christian priests of Abyssinia.
The Zambesi rattle of twenty-five Ic grees farther south, instead of wires on a loop-shaped head, consists of rings on a bar. This is certainly more niusical than the buffalo horns beaten with sticks, used by the Bawe of the Zambesi as an accompaniment to the marimba.
We now come to the gong.
This is a Malayan word, and the home of the in- strument is around the China Sea and in the Malay archipelago. It may be called a tambourine - shaped resonant bell, being a thin bronze disk with an upturned edge forming a rim.
The tempering is the inverse of that adopted for iron. The bronze is of such proportions as to be naturally brittle when cast. It is heated to a cher- ry red, clamped between iron disks, and plunged into water till cool. It will then bear the hammer.
As was said of tbe cymbal, the East- ern gong was no new thing in Europe when reintroduced from China, but it was of much better material and made more noise. The ces thermarum of the Roman bath was a suspended gong struck to notify the bathers when hot water was ready.
It was somethacs shaped like a plate with a raised rim gongand sometilnes like a flat bell having a pro- tuberant dome-shaped centre cymbal. The Chinese use gongs on occasions of ceremony, either religious or state, and they are supposed to yield a little more noise per pound of metal than any other rig.
A small hand-gong which answers as a bell is saucer-shaped, five inches in diameter, in a ring of seven inches with a handle. The variety of gongs in Japan is very great; the assortment at the Centennial was not large.
There is hardly Crude and Curious Inventions. The Malay, Javanese, and Dyak gong is thick, with a broad rim, and gives a muffled sound of deep tone, very different from the clanging noise of the Chinese.By Thomas Carlyle.
Vol. II. 4 writings upon most practical sub- jects, has manifested a strong re- gard for the rights and happiness of the human race.
In this opin- ion we are not alone. He is be- coming popular. We do not mean that the great mass of readers are greedily devouring his writings, as they do those of many light au- thors.
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A crowd of allegorical personages, representing different types of human character, after being brought to repentance by the preaching of Reason, earnestly desire to find out the way to the abode of Truth.
Their authorized spiritual guides do not know the road; and it is Piers the plough Page 37 EARLY ENGLISH PERIOD.
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