Ancient civilization refers specifically to the first settled and stable communities that became the basis for later states, nations, and empires.
About 5, years ago, Egyptians created "sheets" of papyrus by harvesting, peeling and slicing the plant into strips. The strips were then layered, pounded together and smoothed to make a flat, uniform sheet. No major changes in writing materials were to come for several thousand years.
Recent archaeological restoration work on a Western Han garrison near Dunhuang identified linen paper, some with writing on it dating to 8 BC. He took the inner bark of a mulberry tree and bamboo fibers, mixed them with water, and pounded them with a wooden tool.
He then poured this mixture onto a flat piece of coarsely woven cloth and let the water drain through, leaving only the fibers on the cloth. Once dry, Cai Lun discovered that he had created a quality writing surface that was relatively easy to make and lightweight.
Some other materials he used for various papers included tree bark, remnants of hemp, linen rags, and fishnets. Over several centuries, with trade and war, knowledge of papermaking was passed along to Korea, Samarkand, Baghdad, and Damascus.
In the province of Guizhou, papermaking has been a tradition in several local towns for hundreds of years. Many papermaking workshops are well-preserved and continue to make paper in small quantities.
Today, both rough-straw paper and paper money are distributed in all corners of the province. Chinese paper making was introduced to Korea and Vietnam and later to Japan at the beginning of the 3rd century.
It was a valued export in Silk Road trading, but the manufacturing process was kept secret. During the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynastyvarieties of paper were developed for different purposes.
The varieties include hemp paper, hide paper, bamboo paper, and xuan paper. Xuan paper is mostly used in Chinese paintings and calligraphy because of its smooth, durable, and whiteness of the paper. The Song Dynasty was the first government to issue paper currency.
By the end of the 7th century, the papermaking process reached India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
In after the battle of Battle of Talas in Samarkand in present day Uzbekistan the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners captured by the Arab Abbasid conquerors. This subsequently led to the first paper mill in the Islamic world to be founded in Samarkand. The invention then spread to the rest of the Islamic world, and from there to Europe.
By the 10th century, Arabians were substituting linen fibers for wood and bamboo, creating a finer sheet of paper. InEurope's first paper mill was built.History of China: Table of Contents. Historical Setting; The Ancient Dynasties.
Dawn of History; Zhou Period; Hundred Schools of Thought. The Imperial Era. First Imperial Period; Era of Disunity; Restoration of Empire; Mongolian Interlude; Chinese Regain Power; Rise of the Manchus. Emergence Of Modern China. Arts and crafts have a long history in China. Thousands of years ago the Chinese were some of the first people to use silk, jade, bronze, wood, and paper to make art.
The artistic writing called calligraphy was invented in China. Kids turn a critical eye on a wooden horse that was carved in ancient China.
They analyze the horse as far as its purpose, historical significance, and artistic style, then write a story from the horse's perspective. Asia, largest of the earth’s seven continents.
With outlying islands, it covers an estimated 44,, sq km (17,, sq mi), or about one-third of the world’s total land area. Timeline of Chinese history This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states.
To read about the background to these events, see History of China.
Persuasive Essays Class: Written Communication DAS , Fall ; Teacher: Natalie Schiedler about history, art, and architecture, but also about some local business traditions that had Beijing is the capital of China, which has been acting as the Chinese political, economic, cultural, and educational center for a long time.