Mutual respectMutual respect could maximize the effect of learning by improving the mood of trainers and trainees. In contrast, the effect of program must be limited. TCL advocated respect each one. Thus, every body could get the feeling of self-esteem from others.
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Mathematically, Lazare can lay claim to the definition of the cross ratio, a projective invariant of four points. The mechanics of Newton, in his Principia, was more than a century old. It dealt with the mechanics of conservative systems in which there was no room for processes involving heat and friction.
Such processes would ruin the time reversibility of mechanical laws, which could no longer be derived by minimizing the difference between kinetic and potential energies. When Sadi wrote his only scientific work inthere were no laws governing the mechanical effects of heat.
In fact, caloric theory was still in vogue, which treated heat as an imponderable fluid that was conserved. Although this interpretation led naturally to the interpretation of latent and specific heats, it was at a loss to account for phenomena related to the transport of heat, like that which occurs in steam engines.
He used caloric theory in analogy with the drop in height of water used to turn a water-wheel. Water is conserved, just like caloric, and just as the water at the bottom has a smaller potential energy to do work, so, too, the caloric at the lower temperature can do less work than if it were at a higher temperature.
The difference in height represented the difference in temperature and the fall in height represented fall of heat through this temperature difference that could produce work on any material system that was capable of undergoing dilation and contraction.
Sadi was not a member of the establishment, and, in his life time, did not receive the honors to which he rightly deserved. He was not a member of the Academie Francaise and did not frequent the circles of the illustrious giants of his time.
The fate of his book was a telling tale. Being ignored is a fate far worse than being criticized. The achievements of men such as Laplace, Poisson, and Fourier are easily quantified. We talk of the Laplace transform, the Poisson distribution, and the Fourier series.
But, with recognition came the fossilization of these great minds, for in time they became set in their ways and were no longer receptive to new ideas that were put forward by the younger generation.
Carnot was not alone in his solitude, for there was a young brilliant mathematician who was to die in a duel only days before Carnot.
Galois had the same treatment that was bestowed on Carnot: Fourier lost one of the papers he submitted to the Academy, while Poisson had rejected another. It is as Planck said, progress is made not by the conversion of the old generation to the new ideas of the younger generation, but, only when that generation dies out.
Most scientists would agree that Newton laid in peace till the coming of Planck, but Cardwell points out, this is simply not true. The realization that heat could be transformed into work, and their difference represents the internal energy, which is a conserved quantity over a complete and reversible cycle, shook Newton from his resting place at least 50 years prior to the discovery of blackbody radiation and, subsequently, quantum theory.
It was done by amateurs, or better outsiders, such as Carnot, Mayer, and Joule. Toward the end of his short life, Carnot rejected the caloric theory, even going so far as to calculate the mechanical equivalent of heat.
In a lecture to the Royal Institution inJohn Tyndall credits Mayer with the discovery of the interconversion of heat and work, to the chagrin of Joule.
Joule protested that he too should be credited independently with the discovery of energy conversion to which Tyndall agreed entirely. Tait was fond of pointing the finger at Mayer claiming that his determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat from the isothermal expansion of a gas was critically flawed because all the heat does not have to be used in external work.
But how many times are scientific discoveries made for the wrong reasons? Certainly Tait had a unique position in the history of science. Probably due to an inferiority complex next to people like Clerk-Maxwell and Kelvin, Tait thought his role would be in defending his fellow countrymen against what he saw as an attack by foreigners.
And Tait accomplished all of this not by swaying public opinion, but, rather, by writing textbooks for physicists. Textbooks still undiscriminately refer to these laws by their English names. As Cardwell concludes:In ZZ Packer’s “Every Tongue Shall Confess,” the protagonist, Clareese, is on her menstrual cycle for the duration of the story.
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In ZZ Packer's "Every Tongue Shall Confess," the protagonist, Clareese, is on her menstrual cycle for the duration of the story.
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