In the United States, it is important to accurately identify the individual s responsible for crimes in order to see justice served.
Great advances in police science have occurred from Many of these advancements are taken for granted these days, but imagine the challenges faced by crime scene investigators 50 or more years ago.
The law enforcement agencies of the past did not have routine access to the amount information that can be gathered and analyzed from a crime scene. Today's crime scene investigation "tools of the trade" range from the downright boring to the technologically astounding, but they have all greatly impacted how evidence is collected, documented, and analyzed.
One of the most under-appreciated, yet most important, developments in crime scene investigation is inexpensively, mass-produced protective gloves. Since personal safety is of the utmost importance at a crime scene, widely available protective gloves have provided affordable protection to anyone at a crime scene.
These gloves are the first line of defense in protecting the crime scene investigator and his or her family from biohazards, such as HIV and the much more infectious Hepatitis viruses, that can be found at the crime scene.
Protective gloves and their use probably won't change much in the future, but other protective gear might become cheaper and more widely utilized in up coming years.
This could come about as a result of new biohazards that might evolve or stricter regulation of crime scene investigations. Another great advancement in crime scene investigation has been the easy accessibility of tools to document the scene.
Today, 35mm cameras and automated color film processing are so inexpensive and widely available that, with the proper training, any agency can thoroughly and properly document evidence in a timely manner. Documentation of the crime scene visually preserves the evidence so that it can be presented to attorneys or juries many years after the crime has actually been committed.
In the past 20 years, video cameras have also become popular for documenting evidence at the crime scene. The video provides a different perspective that complements the crime scene photos and is another permanent, archival method for documenting the scene.
The future will bring more widespread use of digital photography and videography. Eventually the use of film will probably be replaced by high resolution, affordable digital technology, but currently affordable digital resolution cannot compete with the inexpensive high resolution of ISO film.
The fingerprint, pa1mprint, or footprint is still the best evidence for placing an individual at a crime scene. Individualization potential of fingerprints was recognized in the 19th century, but the practical applications of this information has only been realized in the last 20 years with the advent of the Automated Fingerprint Identification System AFIS.
AFIS can automatically compare a latent print from a crime scene to a databank of known fingerprints in a short period of time.
I am sure there are some readers who remember the pre-AFIS days of manual fingerprint searches and the amount of time consumed in finding a latent match to a suspect. Today, someone enters the information on a terminal and the computer does the rest. Another ingenious advancement in the area of fingerprints was the development of the magnetic fingerprint brush.
Herbert MacDonnell, whom some of you might recognize as the father of modem day blood spatter analysis, invented this simple device that uses a magnet in the end of a small wand.
The wand is dipped into magnetic fingerprint powder. The powder adheres to the wand. The powder can then be brushed onto the print without any mechanical contact between the wand and the print.
There is no danger of brushing the print away and because it is controlled so well, there is little danger of overdeveloping the print. It is almost the perfect tool for developing fingerprints at a crime scene. I see great things for the future of fingerprint technology.
I think AFIS systems will one day routinely include palmprints. Crime scene investigators know that latent palmprints are routinely encountered at crime scenes, but without reference palmprints from a suspect, the information has no immediate investigative potential.The essays are based on presentations given by practicing forensic scientists as part of the graduate course, “Elements of Forensic Science.” The first chapter covers being an expert witness and the importance of ethics in forensic regardbouddhiste.coms: 1.
DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification.
Crime-scene investigation and forensic sciences The first police crime laboratory was established in in Lyon, France, by Edmond Locard.
According to Locard’s “exchange principle,” it is impossible for criminals to escape a crime scene without leaving behind trace evidence that can be used to .
* Professor of Law, Professor of Psychology, and Fellow of the Center for the Study of Law, Science, and Technology, Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, Arizona State University. Ph.D. , Ohio State University; M.S.L. , Yale Law School.
Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science entitled "The Manly Art of Ob-servation and Deduction" by Hogan and Schwartz). Dr. Edmond Locard was also willing to credit books and papers on the subject of forensic science.
He is noted for development of the identification "Sherlock Holmes was the first to realize the im. Forensic science is important because it aids in establishing the guilt or innocence of potential suspects. Forensic evidence is also useful for linking crimes, which establishes the patterns of crimes and also narrows the number of probable suspects.
Forensic science helps law enforcement officials.