What sphinx of cement and aluminum bashed open their skulls and ate up their brains and imagination? Ashcans and unobtainable dollars! Children screaming under the stairways!
References and Further Reading 1.
Various Concepts of Consciousness The concept of consciousness is notoriously ambiguous. It is important first to make several distinctions and to define related terms. We sometimes speak of an individual mental state, such as a pain or perception, as conscious.
However, some kind of state consciousness is often implied by creature consciousness, that is, the organism is having conscious mental states.
Most contemporary theories of consciousness are aimed at explaining state consciousness; that is, explaining what makes a mental state a conscious mental state.
More common is the belief that we can be aware of external objects in some unconscious sense, for example, during cases of subliminal perception. Finally, it is not clear that consciousness ought to be restricted to attention.
An organism, such as a bat, is conscious if it is able to experience the outer world through its echo-locatory senses. There is also something it is like to be a conscious creature whereas there is nothing it is like to be, for example, a table or tree.
For example, philosophers sometimes refer to conscious states as phenomenal or qualitative states. There is significant disagreement over the nature, and even the existence, of qualia, but they are perhaps most frequently understood as the felt properties or qualities of conscious states.
The former is very much in line with the Nagelian notion described above. Access consciousness is therefore more of a functional notion; that is, concerned with what such states do.
Block himself argues that neither sense of consciousness implies the other, while others urge that there is a more intimate connection between the two. Some History on the Topic Interest in the nature of conscious experience has no doubt been around for as long as there have been reflective humans.
It would be impossible here to survey the entire history, but a few highlights are in order. In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato.
As we shall see, Descartes argued that the mind is a non-physical substance distinct from the body. He also did not believe in the existence of unconscious mental states, a view certainly not widely held today. Our mental states are, according to Descartes, infallibly transparent to introspection.
Perhaps the most important philosopher of the period explicitly to endorse the existence of unconscious mental states was G. He also importantly distinguished between perception and apperception, roughly the difference between outer-directed consciousness and self-consciousness see Gennaro for some discussion.
The most important detailed theory of mind in the early modern period was developed by Immanuel Kant.Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
Biology Second Web Reports On Serendip. Hallucinations and the Human Consciousness HimaBindu Krishna The idea of consciousness has been contemplated throughout the course of neurobiology and behavior.
Normal hallucinations like hearing things, seeing things, or having a sense of being off balance is perfectly normal and has no permanent effects. Essay on Freud and Surrealism. Dr. Sigmund Freud takes a special place among the psychologists of the 20 th century: his works have radically changed the look of contemporary psychology, covered the issues of individual’s inner organization, one’s motives and feelings, conflicts between personal desires and needs to follow public .
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Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking. From the best-selling author of Gratitude, On the Move, and Musicophilia, a collection of essays that displays Oliver Sacks's passionate engagement with the most compelling and seminal ideas of human endeavor: evolution, creativity, memory, time, consciousness, and experience.
Oliver Sacks, a scientist and a storyteller, is beloved by readers for the extraordinary neurological case histories.