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Organismic trait designed to solve an ancestral problem s. Shows complexity, special "design", functionality Adaptation that has been "re-purposed" to solve a different adaptive problem. Williams suggested that an "adaptation is a special and onerous concept that should only be used where it is really necessary.
Obligate and facultative adaptations[ edit ] A question that may be asked about an adaptation is whether it is generally obligate relatively robust in the face of typical environmental variation or facultative sensitive to typical environmental variation.
By contrast, facultative adaptations are somewhat like "if-then" statements. For example, adult attachment style seems particularly sensitive to early childhood experiences. As adults, the propensity to develop close, trusting bonds with others is dependent on whether early childhood caregivers could be trusted to provide reliable assistance and attention.
The adaptation for skin to tan is conditional to exposure to sunlight; this is an example of another facultative adaptation. When a psychological adaptation is facultative, evolutionary psychologists concern themselves with how developmental and environmental inputs influence the expression of the adaptation.
Cultural universal Evolutionary psychologists hold that behaviors or traits that occur universally in all cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations. Basic gender differences, such as greater eagerness for sex among men and greater coyness among women,  are explained as sexually dimorphic psychological adaptations that reflect the different reproductive strategies of males and females.
Human evolution Evolutionary psychology argues that to properly understand the functions of the brain, one must understand the properties of the environment in which the brain evolved. That environment is often referred to as the "environment of evolutionary adaptedness".
More specifically, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness is defined as the set of historically recurring selection pressures that formed a given adaptation, as well as those aspects of the environment that were necessary for the proper development and functioning of the adaptation. Humans, comprising the genus Homoappeared between 1.
Because the Pleistocene ended a mere 12, years ago, most human adaptations either newly evolved during the Pleistocene, or were maintained by stabilizing selection during the Pleistocene.
Evolutionary psychology therefore proposes that the majority of human psychological mechanisms are adapted to reproductive problems frequently encountered in Pleistocene environments. The environment of evolutionary adaptedness is significantly different from modern society.
Because humans are mostly adapted to Pleistocene environments, psychological mechanisms sometimes exhibit "mismatches" to the modern environment. One example is the fact that although about 10, people are killed with guns in the US annually,  whereas spiders and snakes kill only a handful, people nonetheless learn to fear spiders and snakes about as easily as they do a pointed gun, and more easily than an unpointed gun, rabbits or flowers.
There is thus a mismatch between humans' evolved fear-learning psychology and the modern environment. The term was coined by Niko Tinbergen to refer to non-human animal behavior, but psychologist Deirdre Barrett said that supernormal stimulation governs the behavior of humans as powerfully as that of other animals.
She explained junk food as an exaggerated stimulus to cravings for salt, sugar, and fats,  and she says that television is an exaggeration of social cues of laughter, smiling faces and attention-grabbing action.
The human mind still responds to personalized, charismatic leadership primarily in the context of informal, egalitarian settings. Hence the dissatisfaction and alienation that many employees experience.
Salaries, bonuses and other privileges exploit instincts for relative status, which attract particularly males to senior executive positions. One of the major goals of adaptationist research is to identify which organismic traits are likely to be adaptations, and which are byproducts or random variations.
As noted earlier, adaptations are expected to show evidence of complexity, functionality, and species universality, while byproducts or random variation will not. In addition, adaptations are expected to manifest as proximate mechanisms that interact with the environment in either a generally obligate or facultative fashion see above.
Evolutionary psychologists are also interested in identifying these proximate mechanisms sometimes termed "mental mechanisms" or "psychological adaptations" and what type of information they take as input, how they process that information, and their outputs.The New Colossus Summary.
In short form, this is a poem that was inspired by the Statue of Liberty. In the poem, Lazarus depicts the Statue of Liberty as a woman who is welcoming all of those who need a home, and she names her the Mother of Exiles.
This is a listing of the stories by author with mention of the books that the stories were taken from or mention of the person who so graciously supplied the story to Classic Short Stories.
DISCLAIMER: The information on this website is not intended and should not be construed as medical regardbouddhiste.comt your health provider. BBW Birth Story Pages. BBW Birth Stories: Normal Vaginal Births BBW Birth Stories: C-Section Stories BBW Birth Stories: Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Stories BBW Birth Stories: Twins and More!
BBW Birth Stories: Supersized Moms ( lbs. plus). the letters of gertrude bell selected and edited by lady bell, d.b.e. volume 2 boni and liveright publishers new york printed in england for boni and liveright, inc.
Donna Karan presents a new gentle fragrance Be Delicious Fresh Blossom, which arrives ad announcement of spring and is as gentle and airy as the first spring days and shy buds which open the door to awakening of nature and new yearly cycle of colours and scents.
It . One word that one often encounters in this context is the parsec (short for "parallax second"); this is the distance of a star that would have a parallax of two arcseconds, or, equivalently, the distance from our sun at which the angle between earth and sun (1 AU) would be one arcsecond (one arcsecond is the 60th part of one arcminute, and one arcminute is the 60th part of one degree).