Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound — they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect.
There are three main types of descriptive methods: This article will briefly describe each of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks. This may help you better understand research findings, whether reported in the mainstream media, or when reading a research study on your own.
Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed.
There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments.
This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations.
Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with naturalistic observation. Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations.
Of course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.
There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity. Survey Method In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires.
After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly.
Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type: Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner.
Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.
It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A?CASE STUDY # 1 UNCOVERING THE SOURCE OF A COMA PREPARED BY: ALLANTE WEBB DATE: 9/13/11 CHM The purpose of this case study is to apply the scientific method by making empirical observations, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, revising the hypothesis, and eventually asserting a theory.
Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study . Case Studies. Critical Views of Scientific Theories.
Paul Feyerabend from Against Method.
Ruth Hubbard “Science, Facts, and Feminism” Gimbel succeeds in creating an innovative textbook that combines philosophical and historical approaches to the study of scientific method. Analysis and Synthesis On Scientific Method - Based on a Study by Bernhard Riemann Tom Ritchey ───────────────────────────────── Abstract - This article deals with the foundations of analysis and synthesis as scientific methods.
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives. Study Hacks Blog Decoding Patterns of Success From “To Do” to “Will Do”: Using the Case Method to Defeat Procrastination July 30th, · 38 comments The Remarkable Life of Erez Lieberman.